Document Type : Research Article
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
Medicinal plants are plants that possess some natural constituents that produce a definite physiological action on human or animal systems. .).plants produce diverse arrays, of low molecular mass natural products known as secondary metabolites. These natural products may include alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, saponins, tannins, steroids or phenols.This study was aimed at evaluating phytochemical constituents and characterization of the active principles using UV‚ FTIR and GC-MS spectroscopic techniques. The leaves of Ficus sycomorus were collected from Alau-Dam‚ Jere Local Government Area of Borno State‚ Nigeria. Seven hundred grams (700 g) of dry pulverized Ficus sycomorus leaves were extracted with 95% methanol using soxhlet extractor and a gummy dark green mass of 124.8 g crude extract was obtained‚ given a percentage yield of 17.83% w/w. The crude extract was subjected to antimicrobial evaluation. Eighty grams (80 g) of crude methanol extract was fractionated through column chromatography and twenty two (22) eluents of 100 mL aliquot were obtained. Similar fractions were then pooled on the basis of their Rf values on the thin layer chromatography (TLC) and four (4) pooled fractions were obtained‚ coded as FA‚ FB‚ FC and FD. The preliminary phytochemical evaluation was carried out on the extracts using standard methods of analysis‚ and these investigations revealed the presence of alkaloids‚ carbohydrates‚ tannins‚ cardiac glycoside‚ cardinolides‚ saponins‚ terpenoids and flavonoids. Anthraquinones and combine anthraquinones were absent. Preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) of column fraction FC yielded four sub-fractions (coded C1‚ C2‚ C3 and C4) in which two (C1 and C3) having higher activity on the tested organisms were subjected to spectra analysis. The interpretation of the UV spectra of sub-fraction C1 revealed that‚ fraction C1 consist of absorption ƛmax at 650.60 nm and 503.00 nm which are similar to ƛmax of alkaloids. Also‚ the UV spectra of sub-fraction C3 revealed absorption ƛmax at 657.20 nm‚ 602.80 nm and 503.20 nm which are also similar to ƛmax of alkaloids. This observations were supported by the major functional groups present in their FTIR spectra‚ having bands at 3333.1 cm-1 which corresponds to N-H stretch in secondary amine‚ 1790 cm-1 corresponding to C=O stretch of ring carbonyl‚ 1427.37 cm-1 corresponding to C=C stretch of aromatic compounds and 2962.76 corresponding to C-H stretch methyl group. These sub-fractions were also subjected to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and the analysis of the result compared with NIST library revealed similar compounds. The compounds were‚ 2-Acetyl-3-methylaminocyclopentenone‚ 9-anthracenyltrimethylsilane‚ 6‚13-bis(2‚5-dimethylphenyl)-Dibenzo[C‚H]diazecine‚ 4’-dimethylamino-2’-(trimethylsilyl)acetanilide‚ 5-Methyl-4-hydroxybenzoylhydrazonefurfurole‚ 4-(3‚4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-2-thiazolamine and Cyclobarbital.