Chemistry department KOGI STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION ANKPA, NIGERIA
Biodiesel is the term for used cottonseed oil (UCSO), animal fat, and vegetable oil monoalkyl ester. Because of its similar and compatible fuel qualities to diesel fuel, biodiesel purchased from UCSO is becoming more and more significant as a replacement fuel for use in diesel engines. The amount of free fatty acids (FFA) determines how biodiesel is produced from oil. In this study, the titration method was used to determine the FFA values of crude cottonseed oil (CCSO) and previously UCSO. These values were 0.56 % and 1.26 %, respectively. Heterogeneous alkali-catalyzed transesterification is used to convert UCSO into biodiesel. It includes mixing methanol with raw UCSO in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts such as a blend of calcined, hydrated, and dehydrated eggshells and coconut shells that makes up the CaO. Alkali-based transesterification was discovered to be the most appropriate technology to extract the biodiesel, hence the UCSO has been chosen for the current investigation. The methanol-oil ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, and catalyst concentration are some of the reaction factors that control the transesterification process. The Box-Behnken Design Response Surface Methodology was used to optimize the aforementioned parameters. Plots of the response surface and contour have been made among numerous factors that affect the generation of biodiesel. A 1:10 molar ratio, 2.5 wt. % catalyst concentration, 80 minutes of reaction time, and a reaction temperature of 60 °C results in an optimum UCSOmethyl ester yield of 93.60 %. The experimental yield, which was calculated after the optimized yield, was found to be 94.50 % based on these parameters, demonstrating the effectiveness of the Response Surface Methodology as a tool for optimizing yield.